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ARTHRITIS OF THE KNEE
A common form of arthritis usually occurs in one or both knee joints. It is marked by the degeneration of articular cartilage that covers and protects the tibia (shin bone), femur (thigh bone), and patella (knee cap) at the knee joint.
ARTHRITIS OF THE SHOULDER
There are two joints in the shoulder, and both may be affected by arthritis. One joint is located where the clavicle meets the tip of the shoulder blade (acromion). This is called the acromioclavicular (AC) joint.
One of the most common knee injuries is an anterior cruciate ligament sprain or tear. The ACL is tissue that connects the thighbone to the shinbone, at the knee. Most ACL injuries occur during certain sports such as basketball, soccer, football, skiing, and tennis.
MULTI-LIGAMENTOUS KNEE INJURIES
Multi-ligament knee injuries occur less frequently when at least two or more ligaments are torn. For example, tearing the ACL and MCL, or the ACL, PCL and LCL. These injuries can occur during sports activities or through high-energy trauma such as a fall from height or a car accident.
Patellar instability is the term given to a range of injuries that occur when the patella, or kneecap, is displaced from its intended resting place. Causes include a traumatic dislocation, such as occurs during a sports activity, or a displacement caused by daily activities.
Shoulder instability occurs when the head of the upper arm bone is forced out of the shoulder socket. This can happen as a result of a sudden injury or from overuse. Once a shoulder has dislocated, it is vulnerable to repeat episodes. When the shoulder is loose and slips out of place repeatedly, it is called chronic shoulder instability.
Calcific tendonitis is a condition that causes the formation of a small, usually about 1-2 centimetre size, calcium deposit within the tendons of the rotator cuff. These deposits are usually found in patients at least 30-40 years old, and have a higher incidence in diabetics.
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common condition that causes pain, numbness and tingling in the hand and arm. The condition occurs when one of the major nerves to the hand — the median nerve — is squeezed or compressed as it travels through the wrist.
ARTHRITIS OF THE HIP
There are three types of inflammatory arthritis that most often cause symptoms in the hip joint: rheumatoid arthritis,
ankylosing spondylitis; and systemic lupus erythematosus.
The meniscus is a piece of cartilage that provides a cushion between your femur
(thighbone) and tibia(shinbone). There are two menisci in each knee joint. They can be damaged or torn during activities that put pressure on or rotate the knee joint.
The posterior cruciate ligament(PCL) is a ligament in the knee. Ligaments are tough bands of tissue that connect bones. Injuries that tear the PCL often damage some of the other ligaments or cartilage in the knee, as well. In some cases, the ligament can also break loose a piece of underlying bone.
Cartilage is a connective tissue found in many parts of the body. Although it is a tough and flexible material, it is relatively easy to damage. This fine, rubbery tissue acts as a cushion between the bones of joints. People with cartilage damage commonly experience joint pain, stiffness, and inflammation (swelling).
ROTATOR CUFF TEAR
A rotator cuff tear often occurs in people who repeatedly perform the same shoulder motions. A torn rotator cuff will weaken your shoulder. This means that many daily activities, like combing your hair or getting dressed, may become painful and difficult to do.
Frozen shoulder, also called adhesive capsulitis, causes pain and stiffness in the shoulder. Over time, the shoulder becomes very hard to move. The condition occurs more commonly in people with diabetes and in people who've kept their arm immobilized for a long period of time.
Trigger finger occurs when the tendon in the affected finger becomes inflamed. Those most at risk include women, people with diabetes or arthritis, and people whose regular activities strain their hands.
FRACTURES OF UPPER & LOWER EXTREMITIES
There are countless ways that people can suffer broken bones (fractures) in their upper extremities (hand, wrist, forearm, elbow, upper arm, and shoulder) and lower extremities (hip, thigh, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot). Trauma and fractures can be caused by many various things.